Here you will find information on studies and initiatives focusing on Europe. Where there are country specific projects, the text “Click to see information” will be visible.

Report/StudySummaryDocuments including WEEE flows/quantities
EU: Shipments of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) under Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 Revised Correspondents' Guidelines No 1EU - Governments of Member States Correspondents Guidelines, 2007: These guidelines provide information for persons arranging shipments of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE); holders of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) arranging transboundary transports of this equipment who wish to avoid non-compliance with Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 on shipments of waste (Waste Shipment Regulation – WSR) and authorities responsible for the enforcement of the WSR.
EnviCrimeNet: Augias project: Initiative against trafficking illegal wasteEuropol: EnviCrimeNet - AUGIAS project 2011. EnviCrimeNet coordinated by EUROPOL is the result of the "AUGIAS project: Initiative against trafficking illegal waste" a Belgian-Hungarian initiative aiming to motivate and enabling the first-line police officers to tackle the phenomenon of waste trafficking. Envicrimenet is an informal network connecting police officers and other crime fighters in the field of environmental crime to share non-operational information and to learn from each other about the extent and nature of environmental crime the best practises to handle it etc. The long-term aim is to stimulate and improve international cooperation to identify and track criminal networks operating across borders. Partners: Environmental crime investigation services or competent authorities responsible for fighting environmental crime in the framework of the Statement of Intent; Public prosecutors or their networks in European states.
EFFACE ProjectEFFACE Project, 2012-2016: The overall aim of EFFACE is to assess and propose effective and feasible policy options and recommendations for the European Union to combat environmental crime. EFFACE will draw on a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches and data and an in-depth investigation of different types of environmental crime. 48
Movements of Waste Across the EU's internal and external bordersEuropean Environment Agency (EEA), 2012: Regulations for transboundary waste shipment. Rising quantities of shipped hazardous and problematic waste, treatment of shipped waste and its consequences for the environment. Increase of illegal shipments. What we know about the fate of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste). For non‑hazardous waste, EU legislation and market forces go hand in hand. Conclusions — the need for better reporting of waste shipment data.48
International Organised Crime in the European UnionEuropean Parliament: 2011 report on organised crime: definition mafia & other criminal’s violence serious crime. European policing presentation of OCTA report and opinion on it. Authors: James Sheptyck Hager Ben Jaffel Didier Bigo.
WEEE TRACE Full traceability of the management of WEEE.EU Commission: EASME, ECO-Innovation project, 2011-2014: WEEE TRACE project intends to ensure full traceability of WEEE flows in order to raise their collection levels guarantee these wastes flow to the appropriate treatment plants and minimize illegal exports or leaks to substandard treatment. The project will run pilot experiences in Spain and in the Czech Republic and will implement the solution at the complete waste collection and treatment chain of Ecolec in Spain. These experiences will benefit other European WEEE compliance schemes and waste streams with similar control and traceability requirements.
Europol OCEuropol, 2011: OC-Scan policy brief. Actors in illegal waste disposal (criminals OC groups brokers). This brief introduces the main characteristics of illegal waste trafficking and disposal in the EU.
Enforcement of the European Waste Shipment Regulation. EUROSAI, 2013: Audit conducted in 8 countries on the enforcement of the EWSR (European Waste Shipment Regulation). Conclusions (main differences) and recommendations. Main international waste routes48
Commission report of 17 December 2015 on the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste - Generation, treatment and transboundary shipment of hazardous waste and other waste in the Member States of the European Union (2010-2012)EU Commission, 2015: Waste exports and imports are governed at international level by the Basel Convention of 22 March 1989 on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal. The European Community is a party to this Convention and has transposed it by Council Regulation (EEC) No 259/93[1] known as the Waste Shipment Regulation. The purpose of this regulation is to organise the supervision and control of shipments of wastes in a way which takes account of the need to preserve protect and improve the quality of the environment and of human health. Based on the guiding principles of the Community's strategy on waste management the Regulation lays down a series of rules which should enable the Community as a whole to dispose of its own waste and also enable the Member States individually to move towards that goal taking into account geographical circumstances and the need for specialised installations to handle certain types of waste.
Practical Manual on permitting and inspection of waste management operations.EU Commission, 2011: The guidance document addresses in particular the competent authorities involved in permitting and inspections. It includes information on theoretical and practical level i.e. regarding implementation practice in the Member States. The purpose of this manual is to accompany the guidance document with providing information on a more practical level. The key element of the manual is the provision of 20 best practice examples elaborated on the basis of existing permitting and inspection practice applied within the EU Member States. Further tools were elaborated to enhance the process of permitting and inspections.
Organised environmental crime in the EU Member States.BfU / Max Planck Institute, 2003: European OECD countries sites disposal registered and sites qualify for hazardous wastes. Link between illegal disposal and organized crime (focus on mafia in Italy); examples of cases involving criminal organization in illegal treatment of hazardous wastes. Illegal techniques preferred (misdeclaration false documents and blurring) profits. Laws and sanctions in some European countries.
Transboundary shipments of waste in the EU developments 1995-2005 and possible drivers. European Environmental Agency, 2008: Summary of various reports (IMPEL EEA...). 48
Waste Without Borders - Transboundary Shipment of Waste EEAEuropean Environmental Agency, 2009: This report sets out what we do and do not know about transboundary shipments of waste. We present the international and EU legislation on waste shipment and information about the increasing quantities of shipped hazardous and problematic waste between EU Member States as well as shipments from EU Member States to other non‑EU countries. We look at how the shipped waste is treated and whether the treatment is better in the importing countries than in the countries of origin and we also examine the illegal shipment of waste including e-waste. We show that waste is a precious resource and that waste shipment regulations and market forces go hand in hand for certain waste streams which is positive. In conclusion we point out the need for better reporting to the European Commission on waste shipments and why this should lead to better understanding of waste shipment issues.48

Reducing vulnerabilities to crime of the European waste management industry: the research base and the prospects for policy.
European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 2007: This paper reviews the literature and then introduces and applies a method to look in greater depth at vulnerabilities that the waste management business offers for crime. It suggests that some current and quite contingent developments open up prospects for higher standards and for a reduction in irregularities and illegalities in waste management.48
Revision of EU WEEE Directive COM(2008)810 finalStEP Initiative, 2010: Commentary on and evaluation of the proposals for the revision of the EU WEEE Directive.
End of waste criteriaEC / Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, 2009: The objective of this report is to provide a general methodology for defining criteria for when a waste ceases to be a waste. The general methodology can then be applied on specific waste streams resulting in end of waste stream specific criteria. General information of WEEE: presentation with some figures; treatment & recycling (minimum required treatment processes.48
Exporting consumer goods – Second-hand articles or waste?Federal Office for the Environment FOEN, 2011: Clarify whether second-hand goods is actual reusable products or waste. Examples are given for product check and shipment requirement.
Detection and Prevention of Illegal Transboundary Movement of Waste and Other Environment-Sensitive Comodities - Manual for trainers.OSCE, 2011: Training manual. Examples from 1992 of illegal movement of wastes and raw materials to Ukraine; typical example of illegal movement of waste (false info/lack of info in the documentation Mislabelling of individual containers false declaration); copy of a document for transboundary/shipment of waste.
Threat Assessment 2013 Environmental Crime in the EU.Europol, 2013: This in-depth Europol threat assessment follows the assessment presented in the SOCTA and aims to provide a detailed account of the threat of environmental crime in the EU. This threat assessment primarily relies on information provided by Member States and Europol's partners.48
Strategic Project on Environmental CrimeEurojust, 2014: The goal of this report is to summarise the findings of the Strategic
Project. It highlights the main problems encountered by the national authorities in prosecuting
environmental crime and attempts to present suggestions for addressing some difficulties,
particularly those linked to cross‐border cooperation. Another goal of this report is to raise
awareness among practitioners, policy makers and legislators of the necessity to improve
cooperation within the European Union and internationally in this important area.
IMPEL – TFS Enforcement Actions III
Project Report
IMPEL, 2013: The project aims to promote and improve inspections and enforcement of waste shipments through and out of the European Union. Its objectives included carrying out inspections on waste shipments, knowledge exchange and capacity building in order to harmonise the level of enforcement and expertise within the participating 30 countries. For this purpose joint activities were carried out over six inspection periods throughout 2012 (Year 1) and 2013 (Year 2). This report covers the results for the inspection periods in both Years 1 and 2.48
IMPEL Project -“Practicability and Enforceability of the WEEE Directive Recast Proposal”IMPEL, 2009: This report sets out the findings and conclusions of an IMPEL project established to examine the practicability and enforceability issues arising from the 2008 Commission proposal for a recast of the WEEE Directive. The project used the practicability and enforceability checklist developed by IMPEL in 2007 to examine the proposal, drawing on the experience of similar work undertaken by IMPEL in 2008 on the IPPC Recast Proposal. The aim of the project is that the findings set out in this report should be considered by all of those involved in the debate on the Recast Proposal, including IMPEL, the Commission and the co-legislators, the Council and European Parliament, in order to assist in ensuring a revised regulatory regime that is practicable and enforceable.
Draft Technical Guidelines on Transboundary Movements of Electronic and Electrical Waste (e-waste), in particular regarding the distinction between waste and non-wasteBasel Convention Secretariat, 2014: These guidelines focus on clarifying aspects related to transboundary movements of e-waste and used equipment that may or may not be e-waste.] [Interpreting and deciding how the transboundary movement provisions of the Basel Convention apply to e-waste and used equipment in a transparent and consistent manner continues to be a challenge under the Basel Convention.
Exploring Tomorrow's Organised Crime.Europol, 2015: This report outlines key driving factors for the evolution of serious and organised crime in the EU. The document describes these key drivers, their impact on serious and organised crime and the potential impact on individual crime areas and organised crime groups (OCGs). It does not claim to make definitive predictions or provide a complete picture of crime in the future, but rather aims to outline plausible developments and to encourage law enforcement authorities to consider and explore the potential evolution of serious and organised rime. 48
Illegal shipment of e-waste from the EU.EFFACE, 2015: A case study on illegal e-waste export from the EU to China. This report examines the case of illegal shipments of e-waste from the EU to China and the effectiveness of EU legislation to counter these shipments. As part of its conclusions this report also presents a series of policy recommendations. The research leading to these results has been carried out as part of the research project "European Union Action to Fight Environmental Crime"48
E-Waste Statistics. Guidelines of Classification, reporting and indicators.C.P. Balde, R. Kuehr, K. Blumenthal, S. Fondeur Gill, M. Kern, P. Micheli, E. Magpantay, J. Huisman (2015), E-waste statistics: Guidelines on classifications, reporting and indicators. United Nations University, IAS - SCYCLE, Bonn, Germany, 2015: A sound measurement framework is proposed that integrates and validates available harmonized statistical data and other non-statistical data sources into e-waste statistics. This measurement framework is presented along with a classification of e-waste. Though the classification is, at this stage, standalone, it links to multiple data sources and data formats. Finally, indicators can be constructed from the framework, which can provide a useful overview of the size of the market for electronic and electrical products within a country. In addition to the full measuring framework, minimum requirements are proposed to collect and report on e-waste statistics for countries that are embarking on this type of data gathering for the first time.
NEWS: IMPEL study confirms that significant challenges remain in implementing EU environmental law.IMPEL, 2015: The European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law (IMPEL) publishes a report of research that looked at remaining challenges in implementing EU environmental law and how IMPEL could help to overcome them. The study includes an analysis of responses from environmental regulators across Europe on practical implementation challenges that they are facing.
Method to measure the amount of WEEE generated : Report to Nordic council's subgroup on EEE wasteNordic Council of Ministers, 2009: Waste of electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains both hazardous and valuable materials. The European directive on WEEE gives producers and importers of EEE the responsibility to collect and treat WEEE. In order to evaluate the effectively of collecting schemes, it is necessary to know the quantity of WEEE generated. The purpose for this project has been to establish a method to measure amount of WEEE generated. It has also been developed a practical Excel model to demonstrate the method. The model is based on amount of EEE supplied to the market and the lifetimes of the products. The report describes in detail the development work and shows examples of calculation. The Excel model is available for documentation and demonstration, together with a user guidance. The project joint venture and Nordisk Council of Minister disclaim responsibility for how users might use the tool and its results.
Code of good practice for the re-use of (W)EEE Public Waste Agency of Flanders (OVAM), 2012: OVAM commissioned a study with the aim of establishing specific criteria for various product categories making it possible to determine whether an electrical or electronic appliance can be re-used in an environmentally responsible way. The following objectives shall be achieved if the Code of Good Practice is properly adhered to: Improvement of the environmental score of equipment which is re-used; the prevention of exports of WEEE under the guise of second-hand goods ; encouraging the re-use of WEEE which meets the re-use criteria.
Commission Staff Working Paper - Impact Assessment Accompanying document to a legislative proposal and additional non-legislative measures strengthening the inspections and enforcement of Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste.European Commission, 2013: This Impact Assessment report examines options to strengthen the inspections and enforcement of the WSR in order to effectively prevent illegal waste shipments.48
Analyzing End of Life LCD TV WEEE Flows in Europe Delft University of Technology and UNU Institute for Sustainability and Peace, 2013: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2013 International Symposium, 2013: "Since the introduction of LCD TVs in 2005, consumers exchanged their bulky CRT television with a new set of flatter and lighter LCD television. As a result the migration to flat TVs has been steadily progressing. Considering the upcoming increase of LCD TVs in the return stream, there is a strong need to quantify the amounts generated as waste. In order to do this, the study utilizes a Sales-Stock-Lifespan model to estimate future flows of LCD TVs across twenty European countries from 2005 to 2016. Quantification of patterns in the waste stream can help designers and decision makers to anticipate on design consequences in collection and treatment before posing new design changes."48
Building local capacity to address the flow of e-wastes and electrical and electronic products destined for reuse in selected African countries and augment the sustainable management of resources through the recovery of materials in ewastesOko-Institut, 2010: "The aim of the research is to identify the principle pathways of used electronic and electric equipment (EEE) from Europe to West Africa as well as potential leakage points for end-of-life products that are mandatory required under the WEEE directive to undergo sound waste treatment within Europe. The study focuses on sources, destinations and volumes of used EEE exports as well as on the characteristics of the export business. The role of the two ports and regions in focus will be analyzed."
Study on collection rates of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)European Commission, 2014: The aim of this study is to support the Commission in meeting the requirements of Article 7 and enhancing collection and environmental performance of the WEEE Recast in practice. This is done by developing common methodologies for the calculation of the quantities of POM WG based on comprehensive data gathering, scientific modelling, sensitivity analysis and conducting an impact assessment that analyses the potential for individual targets within collection categories. Finally, implementation difficulties of Member States and the necessity of derogations in deadlines for target achievement are analysed.
Transposition of the WEEE Directive in the member statesAdeme, 2016: This study is an overview of the transposition of the Directive in the 28 Member States of the European Union by identifying the main differences between them, in order to be useful both for professionals and public authorities. The report presents detailed country sheets. The study is in French.
The efficient functioning of waste markets in the European Union - legislative and policy optionsEuropean Commission DG Environment by ARCADIS, Trinomics, 2016 : This study aims to provide a better understanding of the nature and extent of obstacles and regulatory failures affecting the functioning of waste markets in the EU, and thus preventing the realisation of a circular economy. The study analyses such market distortions and recommends a set of possible solutions.
Individual Producer Responsibility in the WEEE Directive - From Theory to Practice?International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University by van Rossem, C., 2008: The Report explores the experiences to date in transposing and implementing the WEEE Directive in Member States. It focuses on the transposition of the EU WEEE Directive's requirements on individual producer responsibility (IPR) to be implemented into national legislation through proper financial guarantees in all 25 European Member States. It reveals that many national transpositions are potentially frustrating the functions of IPR.