Here you will find information on studies and initiatives with a global focus. Where there are country specific projects, the text “Click to see information” will be visible.

Report/StudySummaryDocuments including WEEE flows/quantities 48
Characterizing Transboundary Flows of Used Electronics Summary Report January 2012StEP Initiative, 2012: The objective of this workshop was to bring these stakeholders together to assess existing work characterizing transboundary flows of used electronics all over the world and to chart a path forward for collaborative data collection and characterization efforts. The ultimate goal is to bring a scientific and balanced perspective to the issue of transboundary flows of used electronics. This report provides a comprehensive summary of the existing method to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the export of e-waste out of the USA.
ENFORCE Project: The Environmental Network for Optimizing Regulatory Compliance on Illegal Traffic Basel Convention Secretariat, 2014: Aims to promote parties’ compliance with the provisions of the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal pertaining to preventing and combating illegal traffic in hazardous wastes and other wastes through the better implementation and enforcement of national law.
Overview of the Challenges and Needs of Parties and Various Stakeholders in Preventing and Combating Illegal Traffic in Line with the Requirements of the Basel ConventionBasel Convention Secretariat - ENFORCE project, 2014: Members of the Environmental Network for Optimizing Regulatory Compliance on Illegal Traffic (ENFORCE) will focus their activities on undertaking capacity-building activities to prevent and combat illegal traffic. This report, prepared by Nancy Isarin of SBC, is a gap analysis towards completing a road map of activities. Two questionnaires were developed to determine capacity building activities to prevent and combat illegal traffic of hazardous wastes and these were addressed to Parties of the Basel Convention, international organisations, Basel Convention Regional Centres and other entities that are members of ENFORCE.48
Electronic waste and organised crime, assesing the links - INTERPOL Bureau Veritas Waste report 2009INTERPOL, 2009: Phase II - report for the INTERPOL Pollution Crime Working Group. Topics covered include: Volume of WEEE produced & exported from several countries; Profits; Flows of US WEEE (origin & destination countries exporters, importers); Quotes legislation (International US federal & US States); Illegal disposal of WEEE in UK; Organized crime/crime group involvement (method structure) and associated crimes.
Basel Convention Instruction manual on the prosecution of illegal traffic of hazardous wastes or other wastes. Basel Convention Secretariat, 2012: Definition of illegal traffic and what shall be done if an illegal traffic is discovered under the Basel Convention. Examples of national legislation translating the provisions. Examples of national penalties. How to prosecute a case (penal, civil or administrative) whom collect evidences cooperation sentencing. Examples of cases of illegal traffic.
The global impact of e-waste: addressing the challenge.International Labour Office, 2012: Report by Karin Lundgren; Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment (SafeWork) Sectoral Activities Department (SECTOR). – Geneva. This report explores the volumes, sources and flows of e-waste, the risks it poses to e-waste workers and the environment, occupational safety and health issues, labour issues and regulatory frameworks, and links this growing global problem with the International Labour Organization’s current and future work. 48
Second International Hazardous Waste Inspection project at seaports: results and reccomendations. International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement (INECE), 2012: Report on number and types of Infractions and Modus Operandi.
Strategic Analysis report on Illegal Export of Electronic Waste to non-OECD countries. INTERPOL, 2012: Motivation behind illegal export of e-waste (benefits + loopholes in legislation & law enforcement; scale of wastes trans-border movements entities involved.48
Transboundary transfers of toxic wastes and their effect on human rightsCETIM Human rights programme, report by Melike Özden, 2009: The purpose of this critical report is to analyze the current state of transboundary movement and dumping of toxic products and wastes as well as its evolution, and to present the principal measures taken in this area at the international and regional (notably African) levels.48
IMPEL-TFS Seaport Project: 'Illegal waste shipments to developing countries common practice' IMPEL-TFS Seaport Project, 2004: 'Illegal waste shipments to developing countries common practice'. Ms Angela van Heeswijk Amy Oerlemans Charles Nijssen. This report gives the final results of the IMPEL-TFS-seaport project. The aim of this project was the improvement of the European enforcement of waste shipment regulation as laid down in EU Regulation 259/93 and the Basel convention, by improved cooperation between the enforcement authorities. The project identified several levels of improvement. A network of enforcers in the participating ports was formed and this network is used to exchange information about violations of the regulation, differences in interpretations and enforcement knowledge.
Combatting illegal waste shipment through international seaports - a call for concerted public and private approaches.International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement (INECE), report by Ruessink Berend H.; Wolters Gerhard J.R., 2011: Quick estimates of illegal waste shipment. Role of authorities. Risks for stakeholder (enterprise) involved in the illegal movement of waste (reputation penalties security). Recommendations and examples of International cooperation.
A Waste of Effort? International Environmental Agreements and Trade. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) by Derek Kellenberg & Arik Levinson, 2011: Legislation with a focus on Basel Convention & its consequences (no reduction in waste trade but when countries also ratified the Ban Amendment waste trade effectively reduce). The authors use statistical data to check the relationship between the volume of waste shipment between countries and the ratification of Basel Ban. Includes figures on amount of annual waste import in countries.48
UNODC Organized crime cases with commentaries. UNODC & INTERPOL, 2012: Digest of organized crime cases. A compilation of cases with commentaries and lessons learned. Few pages on environmental crime (particularly illicit logging): methods to obtain official authorizations corruption false authorization of waste.
World e-Waste Map reveals National Volumes International FlowStEP Initiative UNU, 2015: The escalating global e-waste problem is graphically portrayed in a first-of-its-kind StEP E-Waste World Map. The map was launched coincident with a complementary new StEP report characterizing US domestic and transboundary flows of used electronics no longer residing in households. The interactive map resource presenting comparable annual data from 184 countries shows the estimated amount of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE — anything with a battery or a cord) put on the market and how much resulting e-waste is eventually generated (i.e. comes out of use or post-use storage destined for collection by a recycling company or disposal).
Greenpeace: Toxic Tech: Not in Our Backyard Report on eWaste February 2008Greenpeace, 2008: Report commissioned by Greenpeace; utillises data from the UNU's report to the European Commission. Includes analysis of e-waste put on the market and recycled in a number of countries including Europe USA and rising markets such as China and India; also details some manufacturer schemes in these countries. 48
Emerging Crimes that have an effect on the environments: scope trends and links to corruption and organized crime.HEUNI/UNCPCJ: 2013 report by Matti Joutsen. Corporate crime link to corruption and organized criminal groups offenders' organisation.
IMPEL-TFS SEAPORT PROJECT II_International cooperation in enforcement hitting illegal waste shipments.IMPEL, 2006: report by Charles Nijssen Sandra Kraan. This report describes the final project results of the IMPEL-TFS Seaport II project; an enforcement project carried out by 13 EU Member States, aiming at stimulating and unifying inspections, improving cooperation and information exchange on the enforcement of waste shipments within large seaports and with reference to EU Regulation 259/93, on
the supervision and control of shipments of waste within, into and out of the European
Environmental crime and corruption.U4 Anti-corruption Research Centre, 2012: Includes description of actors (criminal and OC groups); crime associated (money laundering, arms trade activities) corruption data.48
The illegal shipments (or export) of e-waste.Element 14, 2011: article that discusses major disposal countries. Insists on human health issue. It discusses the drawbacks of illegal shipment of e-waste and even charity donations of used equipment.
Does the Basel Ban form an effective and sustainable means of addressing the health and environmental problems caused by the export of e-waste from developed countries to developing nations and countries in transition?Free University of Berlin, 2010: Quantity of WEEE produced and exported by UE / USA. Quote interesting studies & legislation (UE USA federal & States). UE & USA legislation’s influence on WEEE export // comparison: Basel Ban appears to have reduced EU’s volume of WEEE export when US exports have increased. Source of WEEE in India (intern export) flow quantity. Studies & projects including India. Indian legislation on WEEE. Recommendations to WEEE producers and India’s legislation.48
Basel Convention. Instruction Manual on the Prosecution of Illegal Traffic of Hazardous or Other Wastes .UNEP, 2012: report/manual on the prosecution of illegal trafficking of hazardous or other wastes. It is intended to provide guidance for those involved in the prosecution of cases of illegal traffic in hazardous and other wastes. Global in scope, it provides practical information that will be particularly relevant for judges and prosecutors in their role in preventing and combating illegal traffic in hazardous and other wastes.
Illicit trade reportWorld Custom Organisation (WCO), 2012: Role of custom in general and WCO on environmental crime and hazardous waste traffic. Mention several custom operations: Operation Demeter Hong Kong experience Project Sky hole Patching. Presentation of ENVIRONET (communication tool for information exchange and cooperation in the area of environmental border protection among Customs national agencies IO...)
Equivalent conditions for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) recycling operations taking place outside the European Union.
European Commission – DG Environment, 2013: The main purpose of the study is to lay the basis for delegated act(s) to be adopted by the Commission under Article 10(3) of the new WEEE Directive regarding what is considered to be “equivalent treatment conditions” for WEEE treated outside the EU. To this end, the objectives of this study are as follows: Identify different options via which the ‘‘equivalent treatment conditions’’ of Article 10(2) could be supplemented; Analyse the appropriateness and adequacy of those different options; and Provide recommendations as to the best possible policy option(s), based on the analysis carried out.48
Transboundary Movement of Discarded Electrical and Electronic Equipment StEP Initiative - Green Paper, 2013: Building on primary archival and ethnographic research, as well as secondary sources such as recent studies and reports on global flows, this green paper describes, quantifies and analyzes the global trajectory of dis-carded electrical and electronic equipment. In addition, the paper reviews the key international, regional and national regulations and guidelines that govern the transboundary flows of this material stream. Finally, the paper describes and analyzes the drivers of export, as well as the various loopholes and leakages that facilitate the global flow of used and end-of-life electronics, frequently referred to as WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) or “e-waste”.
An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials - OECD Foreign Bribery Report.OECD, 2014: This report endeavours to measure, and to describe, transnational corruption based on data from the 427 foreign bribery cases that have been concluded since the entry into force of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in 1999.
EWAM ToolKit
Proceedings from the 2012 GeSI & StEP E-waste Academy Managers Edition (EWAM)
UNU StEP, 2012: A closer look into E-waste Management and System Design. There are numerous, extensive manuals and guidelines existing on e-waste management – developed by Agencies of the UN, national governments, research institutes, consulting companies et al – most of them characterized by the same lengthy, text-driven structure. With this EWAM Tool-Kit, users will have access to the proceedings of the entire 2012 E-waste Academy – Managers Edition, which can offer an easy-to-navigate compendium of the fundamental e-waste elements to consider when looking into the complexity of e-waste and ho a life cycle perspective and systems thinking contribute to effective e-waste solutions.
The changing geography of global trade in electronic discards: time to rethink the e-waste problemThe Geographical Journal by Josh Lepawsky, 2014: This paper provides a synopsis of the changing geography of global trade in electronic waste over time using data available from the United Nations COMTRADE database. It quantifies the magnitude and direction of this trade between 206 territories in over 9400 reported trade transactions between 1996 and 2012.48
Quantities, flows and resources
UNU - IAS, 2014: "This monitor aims to present the first comprehensive assessment of e-waste volumes, their corresponding impacts and management status on a global scale. This is measured using an internationally-adopted measuring framework that has been developed by the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development (Baldé et al., 2015). The methodology calculates the amount of e-waste generated from harmonised modelling steps and data sources. The outcomes show an unprecedented level of accuracy and harmonisation across countries and are very useful for international benchmarking"48
Waste Trafficking  Challenges and Actions to be takenISWA, Paper by Björn Appelqvist, 2013 : "The lack of proper coordination and allocation of resources between different national authorities are the main bottlenecks to effective and efficient enforcement of the regulations on trans-frontier shipments of waste.Furthermore, effective collection, use and exchange of information and intelligence are essential for better and more effective enforcement, but delivering the intelligence material needed constitutes a large challenge since it demands transnational and cross-organisational cooperation."
Transboundary shipment of E-Waste: Regulations, systems, stakeholders and solutionsDelft University of Technology, Master Thesis Wang Juan, 2009: "Provides an overview of e‐waste transboundary shipment development from legislative, systematic and practical perspectives. In addition, it offers a series of recommendations to achieve a desired end state through a “Green e‐waste shipment” with “monitoring framework”. The study mainly focuses on the EU and China, but is also extended to the international shipment cases and regulations."
Waste Crime - Waste Risks: Gaps in Meeting the Global Waste ChallengeGRID - Arendal - UNEP, 2015: "The current publication is based on the latest research findings, and involvement from practitioners such as the formal waste sector, inspectors, law enforcement officers and prosecutors. It provides insight into the possible scale and features of the main drivers, along with case studies. It is not an exhaustive or fully comprehensive overview, but it intends to identify major areas of policy deficits and challenges that require further investigation, policy action and intervention for prevention and damage
control, as well as to identify opportunities."
E-Waste Assessment Methodology Training & Reference ManualEMPA Materials Science & Technology, 2012: "Methodology developed to carry out the country assessments in the E-waste Africa project. "In order to define a strategy and implement the most suitable e-waste management system, it is necessary to understand the framework con-ditions on local, national or regional level. An e-waste country assessment, as proposed with this methodolo-gy allows acquiring a detailed knowledge of the current situation in a comprehensive approach."
An in-depth literature review of the waste electrical and electronic equipment context: Trends and evolutionSage journals, Waste Management & Research - V Pérez-Belis, MD Bovea and V Ibáñez-Forés, 2014: The aim of this paper is to define and analyse the main areas of research on WEEE by offering a broader analysis of the relevant literature in this field published between 1992 and August 2014. The literature researched comprises 307 articles, which are analysed according to the topic they focus on (WEEE management, WEEE generation, WEEE characterisation, social aspects of WEEE, re-use of EEE or economic aspects of WEEE). In addition, a deeper analysis is also presented, which takes into account the temporal evolution (globally and by topic), location of the study, categories and subcategories analysed, etc.