Here you will find information on studies and initiatives focusing on Europe. Where there are country specific projects, the text “Click to see information” will be visible.

Report/StudySummaryDocuments including WEEE flows/quantities
Étude sur la transposition de la directive DEEE en Europe (Transposition of the WEEE Directive in the member states)ADEME, 2016: This study is an overview of the transposition of the Directive 2012/19/EU on WEEE in the 28 Member States of the European Union by identifying the main differences between them, in order to be useful both for professionals and public authorities. A secondary objective is also to update the study presenting the implementation of the WEEE 2002 Directive by the Member States, carried out by ADEME in 2009.
Text in French. Translation not available.
Exporting consumer goods – Second-hand articles or waste.
Useful tips for dealers, carriers and relief organisations
Federal Office for the Environment, FOEN, 2016: This information brochure gives tips for distinguishing between waste and second-hand goods and contains practical advice on how to conform to the relevant environmental regulations. It aims to bring to notice the problems associated with the illegal export of waste disguised as trade in second-hand goods. 2nd updated edition; first published in 2011.
Author(s): Beat Frey; André Hauser; Simonne Rufener.
The efficient functioning of waste markets in the European Union - legislative and policy optionsEuropean Commission DG Environment by ARCADIS, Trinomics, 2016 : This study aims to provide a better understanding of the nature and extent of obstacles and regulatory failures affecting the functioning of waste markets in the EU, and thus preventing the realisation of a circular economy. The study analyses such market distortions and recommends a set of possible solutions.
Commision report of 17 December 2015 on the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste - Generation, treatment and transboundary shipment of hazardous waste and other waste in the Member States of the European Union, 2010-2012EU Commission, 2015: Waste exports and imports are governed at international level by the Basel Convention of 22 March 1989 on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal. The European Community is a party to this Convention and has transposed it by Council Regulation (EEC) No 259/93[1] known as the Waste Shipment Regulation. This fourth Implementation Report covers the period 2010-2012. Detailed information based on the Member States' report to the Basel Convention for 2010-2012 can be found in Sections A and B of the working document accompanying this report. In addition, Member States' replies to the Implementation Questionnaire for 2010-2012 can be found in Section E of the working document. Quantitative data and figures on generation, treatment and shipment of waste are summarised in the tables and figures of Section A of the working document. Key definitions are provided in Appendix A.1.0 to the working document. This Implementation Report also compares the replies submitted by 27 Member States for 2010-2012 to those from 2007-2009.
Exploring Tomorrow's Organised Crime.Europol, 2015: This report outlines key driving factors for the evolution of serious and organised crime in the EU. The document describes these key drivers, their impact on serious and organised crime and the potential impact on individual crime areas and organised crime groups (OCGs). It does not claim to make definitive predictions or provide a complete picture of crime in the future, but rather aims to outline plausible developments and to encourage law enforcement authorities to consider and explore the potential evolution of serious and organised rime. 48
Illegal shipment of e-waste from the EU.EFFACE, 2015: A case study on illegal e-waste export from the EU to China. This report examines the case of illegal shipments of e-waste from the EU to China and the effectiveness of EU legislation to counter these shipments. As part of its conclusions this report also presents a series of policy recommendations. The research leading to these results has been carried out as part of the research project "European Union Action to Fight Environmental Crime"48
E-Waste Statistics. Guidelines of Classification, reporting and indicators.C.P. Balde, R. Kuehr, K. Blumenthal, S. Fondeur Gill, M. Kern, P. Micheli, E. Magpantay, J. Huisman (2015), E-waste statistics: Guidelines on classifications, reporting and indicators. United Nations University, IAS - SCYCLE, Bonn, Germany, 2015: A sound measurement framework is proposed that integrates and validates available harmonized statistical data and other non-statistical data sources into e-waste statistics. This measurement framework is presented along with a classification of e-waste. Though the classification is, at this stage, standalone, it links to multiple data sources and data formats. Finally, indicators can be constructed from the framework, which can provide a useful overview of the size of the market for electronic and electrical products within a country. In addition to the full measuring framework, minimum requirements are proposed to collect and report on e-waste statistics for countries that are embarking on this type of data gathering for the first time.
Challeneges in the practical implementation of EU environmental law and how IMPEL could help overcome themIMPEL, 2015: The European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law (IMPEL) publishes a report of research that looked at remaining challenges in implementing EU environmental law and how IMPEL could help to overcome them. The study includes an analysis of responses from environmental regulators across Europe on practical implementation challenges that they are facing.
Study on collection rates of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)European Commission, 2014: The aim of this study is to support the Commission in meeting the requirements of Article 7 and enhancing collection and environmental performance of the WEEE Recast in practice. This is done by developing common methodologies for the calculation of the quantities of POM WG based on comprehensive data gathering, scientific modelling, sensitivity analysis and conducting an impact assessment that analyses the potential for individual targets within collection categories. Finally, implementation difficulties of Member States and the necessity of derogations in deadlines for target achievement are analysed.
Technical Guidelines on Transboundary Movements of Electronic and Electrical Waste (e-waste), in particular regarding the distinction between waste and non-wasteBasel Convention Secretariat, 2014: These guidelines focus on clarifying aspects related to transboundary movements of e-waste and used equipment that may or may not be e-waste.] [Interpreting and deciding how the transboundary movement provisions of the Basel Convention apply to e-waste and used equipment in a transparent and consistent manner continues to be a challenge under the Basel Convention.
WEEE TRACE project (2011-2014)
Full traceability of the management of WEEE
EU Commission-EASME, 2014: co-funded by the Eco-innovation Initiative, the WEEE TRACE project intended to ensure full traceability of WEEE flows in order to raise their collection levels, guarantee these wastes flow to the appropriate treatment plants and minimize illegal exports or leaks to substandard treatment. The project run pilot experiences in Spain and in the Czech Republic and implemented the solution at the complete waste collection and treatment chain of Ecolec in Spain. These experiences benefited other European WEEE compliance schemes and waste streams with similar control and traceability requirements.
IMPEL – TFS Enforcement Actions III
Project Report
IMPEL, 2013: The project aims to promote and improve inspections and enforcement of waste shipments through and out of the European Union. Its objectives included carrying out inspections on waste shipments, knowledge exchange and capacity building in order to harmonise the level of enforcement and expertise within the participating 30 countries. For this purpose joint activities were carried out over six inspection periods throughout 2012 (Year 1) and 2013 (Year 2). This report covers the results for the inspection periods in both Years 1 and 2.48
Threat Assessment 2013 Environmental Crime in the EU.Europol, 2013: This in-depth Europol threat assessment follows the assessment presented in the SOCTA and aims to provide a detailed account of the threat of environmental crime in the EU. This threat assessment primarily relies on information provided by Member States and Europol's partners.48
Enforcement of the European Waste Shipment Regulation. EUROSAI, 2013: Audit conducted in 8 countries on the enforcement of the EWSR (European Waste Shipment Regulation). Conclusions (main differences) and recommendations. Main international waste routes48
Commission Staff Working Paper - Impact Assessment Accompanying document to a legislative proposal and additional non-legislative measures strengthening the inspections and enforcement of Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste.European Commission, 2013: This Impact Assessment report examines options to strengthen the inspections and enforcement of the WSR in order to effectively prevent illegal waste shipments.48
Analyzing End of Life LCD TV WEEE Flows in EuropeDelft University of Technology and UNU Institute for Sustainability and Peace, 2013: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2013 International Symposium, 2013: "Since the introduction of LCD TVs in 2005, consumers exchanged their bulky CRT television with a new set of flatter and lighter LCD television. As a result the migration to flat TVs has been steadily progressing. Considering the upcoming increase of LCD TVs in the return stream, there is a strong need to quantify the amounts generated as waste. In order to do this, the study utilizes a Sales-Stock-Lifespan model to estimate future flows of LCD TVs across twenty European countries from 2005 to 2016. Quantification of patterns in the waste stream can help designers and decision makers to anticipate on design consequences in collection and treatment before posing new design changes."48
EFFACE ProjectEFFACE Project, 2012-2016: The overall aim of EFFACE is to assess and propose effective and feasible policy options and recommendations for the European Union to combat environmental crime. EFFACE will draw on a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches and data and an in-depth investigation of different types of environmental crime. 48
Code of good practice for the re-use of (W)EEE Public Waste Agency of Flanders (OVAM), 2012: OVAM commissioned a study with the aim of establishing specific criteria for various product categories making it possible to determine whether an electrical or electronic appliance can be re-used in an environmentally responsible way. The following objectives shall be achieved if the Code of Good Practice is properly adhered to: Improvement of the environmental score of equipment which is re-used; the prevention of exports of WEEE under the guise of second-hand goods ; encouraging the re-use of WEEE which meets the re-use criteria.
Movements of Waste Across the EU's internal and external bordersEuropean Environment Agency (EEA), 2012: Regulations for transboundary waste shipment. Rising quantities of shipped hazardous and problematic waste, treatment of shipped waste and its consequences for the environment. Increase of illegal shipments. What we know about the fate of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste). For non‑hazardous waste, EU legislation and market forces go hand in hand. Conclusions — the need for better reporting of waste shipment data.48
Practical Manual on permitting and inspection of waste management operationsEU Commission, 2011: The guidance document addresses in particular the competent authorities involved in permitting and inspections. It includes information on theoretical and practical level i.e. regarding implementation practice in the Member States. The purpose of this manual is to accompany the guidance document with providing information on a more practical level. The key element of the manual is the provision of 20 best practice examples elaborated on the basis of existing permitting and inspection practice applied within the EU Member States. Further tools were elaborated to enhance the process of permitting and inspections.
Transfrontier Shipment of Electronic Waste.
IMPEL Project Report
IMPEL, 2011: Project report that summarize the results gathered trhough the four workshops designed to build capacity and share best practice to tackle the issue of illegal export of waste from EU Member States. The workshops were undertaken in Portugal, Belgium, Sweden and England between 2008 and 2010 with 18 participating competent authorities.
EnviCrimeNet: Augias project: Initiative against trafficking illegal wasteEuropol, 2011: EnviCrimeNet - AUGIAS project. EnviCrimeNet is the result of the "AUGIAS project: Initiative against trafficking illegal waste" a Belgian-Hungarian initiative aiming to motivate and enabling the first-line police officers to tackle the phenomenon of waste trafficking. Envicrimenet is an informal network connecting police officers and other crime fighters in the field of environmental crime to share non-operational information and to learn from each other about the extent and nature of environmental crime the best practises to handle it etc. The long-term aim is to stimulate and improve international cooperation to identify and track criminal networks operating across borders. Partners: Environmental crime investigation services or competent authorities responsible for fighting environmental crime in the framework of the Statement of Intent; Public prosecutors or their networks in European states.
Europol OCEuropol, 2011: OC-Scan policy brief. Actors in illegal waste disposal (criminals OC groups brokers). This brief introduces the main characteristics of illegal waste trafficking and disposal in the EU.
Detection and Prevention of Illegal Transboundary Movement of Waste and Other Environment-Sensitive Comodities - Manual for trainers.OSCE, 2011: Training manual. Examples from 1992 of illegal movement of wastes and raw materials to Ukraine; typical example of illegal movement of waste (false info/lack of info in the documentation; mislabelling of individual containers; false declaration); copy of a document for transboundary/shipment of waste. This publication has been prepared in the framework of the project “Capacity Building for Combating Illegal Waste Transportation to Eastern Europe”.
Author(s): Joachim Wuttke; Dmytro Skrylnikov; Tamara Kutonova; Volodymyr Yevseyev.
International Organised Crime in the European UnionEuropean Parliament, 2011: This report deals with the analyses of international organised crime in the EU. It aims at presenting a picture of crime that is different from the ones customarily featured in news reports and geopolitical maps in atlases.
Authors: James Sheptyck; Hager Ben Jaffel; Didier Bigo.
Revision of EU WEEE Directive COM(2008)810 finalStEP Initiative, 2010: Commentary on and evaluation of the proposals for the revision of the EU WEEE Directive.
Building local capacity to address the flow of e-wastes and electrical and electronic products destined for reuse in selected African countries and augment the sustainable management of resources through the recovery of materials in ewastes - Component 1: Flows of used and end-oflife e-products from Germany, The Netherlands and Belgium Oko-Institut, 2010: "The aim of the research is to identify the principle pathways of used electronic and electric equipment (EEE) from Europe to West Africa as well as potential leakage points for end-of-life products that are mandatory required under the WEEE directive to undergo sound waste treatment within Europe. The study focuses on sources, destinations and volumes of used EEE exports as well as on the characteristics of the export business. The role of the two ports and regions in focus will be analyzed."