Here you will find information on studies and initiatives with a global focus. Where there are country specific projects, the text “Click to see information” will be visible.

Report/StudySummaryDocuments including WEEE flows/quantities 48
The Global E-waste Monitor 2017
Quantities, Flows, and Resources
UNU, ITU and ISWA, 2017: This 2017 edition of the Global E-waste Monitor informs policy makers, industries, and businesses to enhance the understanding and interpretation of global e-waste data, thus communicating the data to the general public and relevant stakeholders. This report provides the most comprehensive overview of global e-waste statistics.
Author(s): Baldé, C.P.; Forti V.; Gray, V.; Kuehr, R.; Stegmann, P.
Strategic Report: Environment, Peace and Security – A Convergence of ThreatsINTERPOL&UNEP, 2016: This report summarizes some of the key areas in which INTERPOL and UN Environment are developing their strategies and activities to counter environmental crime – a collective term describing any illegal activity carried out by a criminal entity to generate profits, which results in harm to our ecosystem, by damaging environmental quality, hastening biodiversity loss, and depleting natural resources.
2017 Illicit trade reportWorld Custom Organisation (WCO), 2017: World Customs Organisation, 2017: An annual publication in which the Organization tries to quantify and map the situation concerning illicit markets in the following six key areas: Cultural Heritage; Drugs; Environment; IPR, Health and Safety; Revenue; and Security. This Report wishes to make a contribution towards building knowledge on illicit trade as well as to provide an overview of the Customs community’s efforts to secure global trade.
Waste Crime - Waste Risks: Gaps in Meeting the Global Waste ChallengeGRID - Arendal - UNEP, 2015: "The current publication is based on the latest research findings, and involvement from practitioners such as the formal waste sector, inspectors, law enforcement officers and prosecutors. It provides insight into the possible scale and features of the main drivers, along with case studies. It is not an exhaustive or fully comprehensive overview, but it intends to identify major areas of policy deficits and challenges that require further investigation, policy action and intervention for prevention and damage
control, as well as to identify opportunities."
Waste Crime - Waste Risks: Gaps in Meeting the Global Waste ChallengeGRID - Arendal - UNEP, 2015: "The current publication is based on the latest research findings, and involvement from practitioners such as the formal waste sector, inspectors, law enforcement officers and prosecutors. It provides insight into the possible scale and features of the main drivers, along with case studies. It is not an exhaustive or fully comprehensive overview, but it intends to identify major areas of policy deficits and challenges that require further investigation, policy action and intervention for prevention and damage
control, as well as to identify opportunities."
ENFORCE: The Environmental Network for Optimizing Regulatory Compliance on Illegal Traffic Basel Convention, 2014: Aims to promote parties’ compliance with the provisions of the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal pertaining to preventing and combating illegal traffic in hazardous wastes and other wastes through the better implementation and enforcement of national law.
An in-depth literature review of the waste electrical and electronic equipment context: Trends and evolutionSage journals, Waste Management & Research - V Pérez-Belis, MD Bovea and V Ibáñez-Forés, 2014: The aim of this paper is to define and analyse the main areas of research on WEEE by offering a broader analysis of the relevant literature in this field published between 1992 and August 2014. The literature researched comprises 307 articles, which are analysed according to the topic they focus on (WEEE management, WEEE generation, WEEE characterisation, social aspects of WEEE, re-use of EEE or economic aspects of WEEE). In addition, a deeper analysis is also presented, which takes into account the temporal evolution (globally and by topic), location of the study, categories and subcategories analysed, etc.
An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials - OECD Foreign Bribery Report.OECD, 2014: This report endeavours to measure, and to describe, transnational corruption based on data from the 427 foreign bribery cases that have been concluded since the entry into force of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in 1999.
THE GLOBAL E-WASTE MONITOR 2014 - Quantities, flows and resourcesUNU - IAS, 2014: This monitor aims to present the first comprehensive assessment of e-waste volumes, their corresponding impacts and management status on a global scale. This is measured using an internationally-adopted measuring framework that has been developed by the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development (Baldé et al., 2015). The methodology calculates the amount of e-waste generated from harmonised modelling steps and data sources. The outcomes show an unprecedented level of accuracy and harmonisation across countries and are very useful for international benchmarking.48
The changing geography of global trade in electronic discards: time to rethink the e-waste problemThe Geographical Journal by Josh Lepawsky, 2014: This paper provides a synopsis of the changing geography of global trade in electronic waste over time using data available from the United Nations COMTRADE database. It quantifies the magnitude and direction of this trade between 206 territories in over 9400 reported trade transactions between 1996 and 2012.48
Overview of the Challenges and Needs of Parties and Various Stakeholders in Preventing and Combating Illegal Traffic in Line with the Requirements of the Basel ConventionBasel Convention Secretariat - ENFORCE project, 2014: Members of the Environmental Network for Optimizing Regulatory Compliance on Illegal Traffic (ENFORCE) will focus their activities on undertaking capacity-building activities to prevent and combat illegal traffic. This report, prepared by Nancy Isarin of SBC, is a gap analysis towards completing a road map of activities. Two questionnaires were developed to determine capacity building activities to prevent and combat illegal traffic of hazardous wastes and these were addressed to Parties of the Basel Convention, international organisations, Basel Convention Regional Centres and other entities that are members of ENFORCE.48
World e-Waste Map reveals National Volumes International FlowStEP Initiative-UNU, 2013: The escalating global e-waste problem is graphically portrayed in a first-of-its-kind StEP E-Waste World Map. The map was launched coincident with a complementary new StEP report characterizing US domestic and transboundary flows of used electronics no longer residing in households. The interactive map resource presenting comparable annual data from 184 countries shows the estimated amount of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE — anything with a battery or a cord) put on the market and how much resulting e-waste is eventually generated (i.e. comes out of use or post-use storage destined for collection by a recycling company or disposal).
Emerging Crimes that have an effect on the environments: scope trends and links to corruption and organized crime.HEUNI/UNCPCJ: 2013 ppt summarizing the report by Matti Joutsen. Corporate crime link to corruption and organized criminal groups offenders' organisation.
Waste Trafficking  Challenges and Actions to be takenISWA, Paper by Björn Appelqvist, 2013: The lack of proper coordination and allocation of resources between different national authorities are the main bottlenecks to effective and efficient enforcement of the regulations on trans-frontier shipments of waste. Furthermore, effective collection, use and exchange of information and intelligence are essential for better and more effective enforcement, but delivering the intelligence material needed constitutes a large challenge since it demands transnational and cross-organisational cooperation.
Transboundary Movement of Discarded Electrical and Electronic Equipment StEP Initiative - Green Paper, 2013: Building on primary archival and ethnographic research, as well as secondary sources such as recent studies and reports on global flows, this green paper describes, quantifies and analyzes the global trajectory of dis-carded electrical and electronic equipment. In addition, the paper reviews the key international, regional and national regulations and guidelines that govern the transboundary flows of this material stream. Finally, the paper describes and analyzes the drivers of export, as well as the various loopholes and leakages that facilitate the global flow of used and end-of-life electronics, frequently referred to as WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) or “e-waste”.
Equivalent conditions for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) recycling operations taking place outside the European Union.
European Commission – DG Environment, 2013: The main purpose of the study is to lay the basis for delegated act(s) to be adopted by the Commission under Article 10(3) of the new WEEE Directive regarding what is considered to be “equivalent treatment conditions” for WEEE treated outside the EU. To this end, the objectives of this study are as follows: Identify different options via which the ‘‘equivalent treatment conditions’’ of Article 10(2) could be supplemented; Analyse the appropriateness and adequacy of those different options; and Provide recommendations as to the best possible policy option(s), based on the analysis carried out.48
Characterizing Transboundary Flows of Used Electronics Summary Report January 2012StEP Initiative, 2012: The objective of this workshop was to bring these stakeholders together to assess existing work characterizing transboundary flows of used electronics all over the world and to chart a path forward for collaborative data collection and characterization efforts. The ultimate goal is to bring a scientific and balanced perspective to the issue of transboundary flows of used electronics. This report provides a comprehensive summary of the existing method to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the export of e-waste out of the USA.
Basel Convention Instruction manual on the prosecution of illegal traffic of hazardous wastes or other wastes. Basel Convention Secretariat, 2012: Definition of illegal traffic and what shall be done if an illegal traffic is discovered under the Basel Convention. Examples of national legislation translating the provisions. Examples of national penalties. How to prosecute a case (penal, civil or administrative) whom collect evidences cooperation sentencing. Examples of cases of illegal traffic.
The global impact of e-waste: addressing the challenge.International Labour Office, ILO, 2012: This report explores the volumes, sources, and flows of e-waste, the risks it poses to e-waste workers and the environment, occupational safety and health issues, labour issues and regulatory frameworks, and links this growing global problem with the International Labour Organization’s current and future work.
Author(s): Karin Lundgren, Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment (SafeWork), Sectoral Activities Department (SECTOR), ILO.
Second International Hazardous Waste Inspection project at seaports: results and reccomendations INECE, 2012: report on international good practices for environmental inspections at seaports. The result is an improved understanding of needs and constraints of responsible officials as well as a stronger picture of type of waste, modus operandi, and routes that are being used to traffic illegal shipments of hazardous waste.
Strategic Analysis report on Illegal Export of Electronic Waste to non-OECD countries INTERPOL, 2012: This factsheet provides a briefing on the INTERPOL Global E-Waste Crime Group Phase III Strategic Analysis Report on Illegal Export of Electronic Waste to Non-OECD Countries. The objective of this analysis is to provide strategic and, if possible, tactical insight into the illegal export of e-waste worldwide substantiated by the intelligence gathered by INTERPOL and make recommendations on how the relevant global information position can be further improved.48
EWAM ToolKit
Proceedings from the 2012 GeSI & StEP E-waste Academy Managers Edition (EWAM)
StEP Initiative-UNU, 2012: A closer look into E-waste Management and System Design. There are numerous, extensive manuals and guidelines existing on e-waste management – developed by Agencies of the UN, national governments, research institutes, consulting companies et al – most of them characterized by the same lengthy, text-driven structure. With this EWAM Tool-Kit, users will have access to the proceedings of the entire 2012 E-waste Academy – Managers Edition, which can offer an easy-to-navigate compendium of the fundamental e-waste elements to consider when looking into the complexity of e-waste and ho a life cycle perspective and systems thinking contribute to effective e-waste solutions.
E-Waste Assessment Methodology Training & Reference ManualEMPA Materials Science & Technology, 2012: "Methodology developed to carry out the country assessments in the E-waste Africa project. "In order to define a strategy and implement the most suitable e-waste management system, it is necessary to understand the framework con-ditions on local, national or regional level. An e-waste country assessment, as proposed with this methodolo-gy allows acquiring a detailed knowledge of the current situation in a comprehensive approach."
Digest of organized crime cases with commentaries. UNODC & INTERPOL, 2012: Digest of organized crime cases. A compilation of cases with commentaries and lessons learned. Few pages on environmental crime (particularly illicit logging): methods to obtain official authorizations corruption false authorization of waste.
Environmental crime and corruption.U4 Anti-corruption Research Centre, 2012: Includes description of actors (criminal and OC groups); crime associated (money laundering, arms trade activities) and corruption data.48
A Waste of Effort? International Environmental Agreements and Trade. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), 2011: Legislation with a focus on Basel Convention & its consequences (no reduction in waste trade but when countries also ratified the Ban Amendment waste trade effectively reduce). The authors use statistical data to check the relationship between the volume of waste shipment between countries and the ratification of Basel Ban. Includes figures on the amount of annual waste import in countries.
Author(s): Derek Kellenberg; Arik Levinson.
Project Sky-Hole-Patching I&II.United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 2010: Project designed to monitor the movement of suspicious shipments of ozone depleting chemicals and hazardous waste in the Asia Pacific region.
Does the Basel Ban form an effective and sustainable means of addressing the health and environmental problems caused by the export of e-waste from developed countries to developing nations and countries in transition?Free University of Berlin, 2010: Quantity of WEEE produced and exported by UE / USA. Quote interesting studies & legislation (UE USA federal & States). UE & USA legislation’s influence on WEEE export // comparison: Basel Ban appears to have reduced EU’s volume of WEEE export when US exports have increased. Source of WEEE in India (intern export) flow quantity. Studies & projects including India. Indian legislation on WEEE. Recommendations to WEEE producers and India’s legislation.48